1819 - 1885
The first air-independent submarine with self-engine was invented by Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol. His submarines, called Ictineo (fish-ship) I and II, contributed to the advances in submarine navigation.
The Ictineo was a double vessel, with technology to immerse and ascent to the surface, an air renewal system, and a engine.
Written by: Enriqueta Vallejo-Yagüe.